Nutrition and Hydration (Food and Water)


Intravenous Feeding

How feeding is provided
Needle is inserted into a vein, usually in the hand or forearm, allowing the person to be nourished through the circulatory system.

General use of this type of feeding
Generally used to provide fluid maintenance to prevent dehydration or to provide minimal nutrition on a short-term basis. Consists of sugar, salt and water.

Patients who receive this type of feeding
1. Post-operative patient who cannot have solid food.

2. Patient who is near death.

3. Patients, with a variety of illnesses, who need supplemental fluids on a short-term basis.

4. Patients who need medications such as antibiotics administered intravenously.

Peripheral Alimentation

How feeding is provided
Needle is inserted into a vein, usually in the hand or forearm, allowing the person to be nourished through the circulatory system.

General use of type of feeding
Generally used as a temporary means of providing nutrition. Consists of a liquid nutritional suppliment which is not as nutritional as hyperalimentation but provides more nutrition than intravenous feeding.

Patients who receive this type of feeding
1. Patient with a bowel obstruction.

2. Patient suffering from burns.

3. Patient with post-operative complications such as poor wound healing.

4. Patient undergoing repeated operations over a short period of time.

5. Some cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Hyper-Aligmentation

How feeding is provided
Catheter is surgically placed in a vein in the neck allowing the person to be nourished through the circulatory system. Complicated surgery which requires close medical supervision.

General use of type of feeding
Generally used to provide long-term nutrition. Consists of a full-liquid nutritional supplement.

Patients who receive this type of feeding
1. Patient with bowel obstruction.

2. Patient suffering from burns.

3. Patient with post-operative complications such as poor wound healing.

4. Patient undergoing repeated operations over a short period of time.

5. Some cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Nasogastric Tube (Enteral)

How feeding is provided
Soft, plastic, pliable tube is inserted through the nose to reach the stomach allowing nutrition to enter directly into the digestive system.

General use of type of feeding
Generally used to provide intermediate-term nutrition. Consists of a full-liquid nutritional suppliment.

Patients who receive this type of feeding
1. Patient who is comatose, elderly, or on a respirator, or who has an intact bowel but can not swallow.

2. Patient with a neurological (brain) injury which impairs swallowing.

Gastrostomy, Jejensostomy, Gastrostomy Button

How feeding is provided
Tube is surgically insterted through the abdominal wall into the stomach or small intestine allowing the nutrition to enter directly into the digestive system. Installed on outpatient basis under local anesthetic or through surgery, depending upon the medical situation and need.

General use of type of feeding
Generally used to provide long-term nutrition. Consists of a full-liquid nutritional supplement.

Patients who receive this type of feeding
1. Patient who cannot swallow due to a brain tumor or other neurologic disease.

2. Patient with cancer of the esophagus or any disease which obstructs swallowing.

3. Patient who is comatose and cannot, or will not, swallow.

Effects of dehydration (lack of water) and starvation (lack of food):

  • Dry mucous membranes (mouth, nose, throat and genital organs)
  • Constipation
  • Impactation (buildup of stool in the body), severe abdominal cramping and bloating, nausea and vomiting
  • Electrolyte imbalances (salt and water problems in the blood and tissues)
  • Arrhythmias (heart problems); myalgias and malaise (muscle pain and marked fatigue)
  • Cough and shortness of breath
  • Severe depression and confusion, severe agitation and fear, delusions
  • Dry, cracked skin
  • Urinary, vaginal and bowel infections
  • Bronchitis and pneumonia
  • Blood in the bowel, stomach, kidney and lungs; kidney failure
  • General systematic collapse and death

  • Share

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published.